so our next next topic is ecosystem as we already discussed that environment is the that all that surrounds us ecology is the scientific study of the interaction between the organism and its environment an ecosystem is the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients surround nutrients a ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and microorganisms in an area functioning together with all the new on living and living materials like physical factors and other things according to British ecologist art at Ansley an ecosystem is defined as a system and that arises from the integration of all living and non-living factor of the environment so it is combination of both living and nonliving factors ecology ecology is the study of how living and nonliving factors affect each other in an environment an ecosystem is a basic and functional unit of ecology these are some of the examples of ecosystem like tropical rain forest temperate forest conifer forest boundary region and these are the distribution of these different regions across the globe so here you can see that blue color is from religion green color is a tropical forest orange is sivanna yellow is the desert area so different areas and different ecosystems also now classification of ecosystem ecosystem is divided into two part first is man-made ecosystem and second is natural ecosystem mohamad means which are created by human beings like aquaria garden dams and then crop lands and other things and natural ecosystem means which exist naturally so examples are some of the forests some of the other things now natural ecosystem is again divided into two part aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem aquatic ecosystem is again divided into two part that is marine ecosystem freshwater ecosystem marine means the ecosystem inside the sea water while the freshwater ecosystem means from the river from the lake from the ponds freshwater ecosystem is again divided into two part a running water ecosystem like River and standing water ecosystem like pond running water ecosystem is also known as low tech while standing water ecosystem is also known as lending terrestrial ecosystem that means on the land is divided into three part that is forest ecosystem grassland ecosystem and desert ecosystem so these are the classification of ecosystems now natural versus artificial ecosystem what is the difference between the natural and artificial ecosystem the first is natural ecosystems are developed under the natural conditions while artificial ecosystems are created by human beings secondly inorganic nutrients are returned to the soil from which they are taken away so that means if plant is growing and it is taking nutrients from the soil after death of the plant all the nutrients are going back into the soil while in the artificial ecosystem plants of this are grown but the nutrients like fruits and vegetables they are taken away from the ecosystem natural ecosystems they don’t have distinct boundaries that means they are dependent on each other and there are no different distinct boundaries but in case of the artificial ecosystem they are having a fixed boundaries that means a garden and everything they are having a fixed amount of boundaries natural ecosystems have alternate source of food if there are lack of one food then they are dependent on the other food while in case of artificial ecosystem they are not dependent they are dependent on the food but it is only one source of the food that means whatever human beings are supplying their examples for example natural ecosystems are grassland forests marine water except etcetera and in case of artificial ecosystem it is Aquarian gardens and dams no structure of ecosystem we have already discussed the classification of ecosystem that means what are the different types of ecosystem but now let’s discuss the structure that means how they are made up of and what are the different components they make an ecosystem so there are two basic component one is biotic component one is a very comforting means leaving a biotic means non living biotic components that in divided into three part when its producer also known as Otto tapas for example green plants and some bacteria which produces their own food and secondly the consumers are a trottibus these are some of the animals which are dependent on the producers they don’t produce their own food they are also classified again into primary consumer secondary consumer or tertiary consumer primary consumers are basically herbivores they eat only herbs or vegetarians secondary consumers can be carnivores or omnivores so they are wrong they can eat carnivorous means they can eat only non which or meats while the only words they can eat both of them food means plants also and animals also and then the last part is their decomposer decomposer means all the bacteria fungus which become poses the dead body and dead organic matter and put them into simple parts so these are decomposed biotic component let’s talk about the erotic component a biotic components mainly are of four types one is organic coming from the organic matter from the living bodies like carbohydrates lipids and proteins second part is inorganic like water ammonia gases they exist in nature but they are not organic so water ammonia and other things these they are existing in nature but they are non living in our material next is the climatic related to climate like rainfall and humidity and lastly is the physical factors like heat light and temperature so these are some of the herbal tea component of the ecosystem now functions of ecosystem our ecosystem and in this case we have to study for thing that is food chain food web flow of energy and ecological pyramid what is food chain fortune canvas can be explained as the transfer of food energy from the source starting generally from the plants through a series of organisms by repeated eating and being eaten up can be referred as food chain so there is a long chain of the food passing through different living organisms by by the process of eating and being eaten up so this is the whole food chain for example here in this case grasses are eaten by the in this caterpillar and then this caterpillar is eaten by the bird and while the bird is eaten by the eagle so it is a food chain when the food energy is transferred from the plants to the eagle these are some more examples of the food chain like in this case the plants are the producers while other things are consumers here also grasshopper is the primary consumer bird is the secondary consumer and the cat is a thirsty consumer so this is one example there are many more examples like this in this case again the producer first part is the producer and remaining at the consumer and they are also having primary consumer secondary tertiary and fourth order of consumer so grasshopper is the primary frog is the secondary snake is the tertiary and the Eagle is the fourth level of consumer aquatic food chain also in this food chain exist in a critical ecosystem also so here the producers then primary consumer then secondary consumer tertiary consumer fourth auto consumer and fifth order consumers food chains are of two types one is grazing food chain and another is tetris food chain grazing means starting from the birth or hurting from the autotrophs of producers so it goes from the producers to the primary consumer to the secondary consumer and continues on while that Ritter’s food chain start after death or starts from the dead body so it starts from the dead body it goes to the primary decomposer then secondary decomposer and finally whatever it ends to that so these are two types of food chain ones starting from the birth one starting from the death so grazing and gratuitous food chains what are the significances of the food chain wise food chain is important because it can maintain and regulate the population size so if people are eating each other then it will maintain the overall population size of population of all the living organisms it is also balancing the ecology so all the nutrients are balanced equally and then it is also responsible for the biomagnification what is biomagnification biomagnification means accumulation of the of the toxic material in the higher level of the tropical food chain that means if there is a long food chain the the toxic material goes on accumulating in the food chain is not going out of that and whenever it is reaching to the highest level of the of the consumer there is the more and more accumulation of this toxic material and that is known as bio management that means this talking toxic material is getting magnified within our food chain as it is from moving from primary consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer – and overall so it is the accumulation of the toxic metal in the food chain so that is biomagnification and what is food web it is the interlinking pattern formed by the several food chains that are linked together is called the food web so there are many food chains they are linked in between and therefore making some kind of structure that is known as food these are some of the examples of forever vegetables I didn’t buy the snails snails I didn’t buy the Fox or the chicken and then chicken Alton buy the Fox so these are some of the examples of food webs little more complex food web example is something like this now let’s talk about the flow of energy energy is given by some of the laws and the first law of energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed energy neither can be created nor destroyed that means energy can only be transferred from one to other it is never created nor destroyed second law of Energy says that no energy transformations are hundred percent efficient that means there will be always some loss of energy there will be always some loss of energy they will not be hundred percent energy will be transferred from one level to other level and how much will be the transferred energy only ten percent of the food energy is transferred from one tropical level to another so almost percent of the energy is gone going to be wasted so for example in this case in this diagram producer is having kilo calorie while the protein so the primary consumer will have only % of that that means kilo calorie secondary consumer will have % of the primary consumer that is almost kilo calorie and thirsty consumer will have % of the secondary consumers energy that means kilo calorie only ecological pyramids the graphical representation of different tropical levels in an ecosystem is known as ecological pyramid and if you are representing the tropical levels in an ecosystem they goes on decreasing as you go on a higher level of the of the food chain and that’s why it forms the shape of a pyramid and there are three different types of pyramids of ecological pyramids these are pyramid of number pyramid of biomass and pyramid of energy so let’s talk about first pyramid of number so if we are counting the numbers of different living organisms at different eat and tropical levels then it will form a shape of pyramid and that pyramid is known as pyramid of numbers for example in this case if we are counting the number of leaves there are lakh leaves on a tree then there should be around , caterpillars and then birds and only one Eagle so in this case as the number of living organisms goes on decreasing from leaves to caterpillars to bird to ages this forms a pyramid which is known as pyramid of numbers because we are counting only numbers this pyramid can also be inverted like if the producer is only and then the primary consumers like herbivorous birds they are more in numbers and then parasites they are even more in numbers and then hyper parasites they are even more than in numbers so in this case the number of organisms goes on increasing as you proceed in the tropical level so that means the protein the pyramid will be inverted because initially it will be less then it will go on increasing increasing increasing and increasing this type of parameter is known as inverted pyramid of numbers let’s talk about the pyramid of biomass so if we are counting or if we are taking into account the weight of the material at different tropical level then it will be call as pyramid of biomass way it means biomass so we will be counting here wait so for example in this case the producers they are having kilograms of producers then herbivorous only kilograms then primary Kerry Morrison they are kilograms and their top carnivores they are kilograms so the weight goes on decreasing it forms a pyramid and that is pyramid of biomass this can also be inverted if I take the density that means if I am counting the producers they are only four grams per square meter within one square meter area there are only four grams but as I increase the herbivores then there are eight grams in eight grams per meter square and finally in the carnivores the increase to grams per meter square so in this case the knob in the weight of the of the different organisms goes on increasing and this can be called as inverted pyramid of biomass and the last one is the pyramid of energy again if we are counting the amount of energy at different tropical levels then we can say that this is the Pyramid of energy for example here grasses they are having , kilocalories grasshoppers they are having kilo Cal kilo calorie frogs they are having hundred kilo calorie snakes they are having kilocalories and hawk or the Eagle it is having kilo calorie so that means overall energy goes on decreasing and in that case whatever pyramid is formed is known as pyramid of energy pyramid of energy can never be inverted because in a tropical chain of food chain always the energy goes on decreasing it never increases so it should never be inverted will be only done normal pyramid as I told you again the pyramid of energy is never never inverted is always upright because there is always loss of energy while moving from lower level to the higher tropical level therefore the energy reaching to the next level is always less compared to that of the previous tropical level you

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